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Drinking water purification
First, the water purification industry overview:
    Water is the source of life, drinking water is a basic human survival. With the improvement of people's living standards, drinking water problems become increasingly concerned about the topic, but also one of the most international public health issues of concern. The UN report noted that in poor areas, 80% of diseases are caused by unsafe drinking water. Every day about 2.5 million deaths.
    According to authoritative statistics National Development and Reform Commission, the National Bureau of Statistics, the next five years there will be nearly 550 billion market demand, the annual growth rate of 35% annually. China's household water purification product penetration rate is only 0.17%, while Europe, Japan and South Korea's penetration rate of 76%. Deep purification of drinking water is also increasingly showing its prominent and important position.
Second, drinking water purification industry applications:
    Clean drinking water including natural springs, wells, rivers and lakes, including processed mineral water, purified water. Processed drinking bottled water, bottled water, drinking water pipes and other forms. Deep purification of drinking water can be said to relate to all aspects of life, in addition to people's daily drinking also relates to food, beverage, paper, brewing and other industries.
Third, the water purification industry standards:
    By the end of 2006, the Ministry of Health in conjunction with relevant departments completed the 1985 edition of "drinking water health standards" revision, and formally promulgated the new version of "drinking water health standards," the full implementation of the provisions from 1 July 2012.
Fourth, a typical drinking water purification treatment process:
    A typical treatment process for drinking water purification according to the different quality of its raw water mainly consists of three categories namely softening, with the exception of iron and manganese and fluoride.
1, softened
    First, according to the hardness of the water itself is divided into two kinds of soft and hard water. Water hardness refers to the content of dissolved salts in the water, that is, the content of calcium and magnesium salts. Hard water usually does not cause direct harm to health, however, if there is scale, it will adsorb more harmful substances, it will produce some harm, but long-term consumption of high hardness of water, can cause cardiovascular, nervous, urinary and blood, etc. Lesions of the system. Commonly used method of removing hardness ion exchange, membrane separation, lime method and dosing method. Specific part softened visible.
2, with the exception of iron and manganese
    Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) is the main constituent elements of the earth's crust, widely found in nature. Divalent iron and manganese are dissolved in water, reducing groundwater, lakes and even a few deep water river water is often associated exists. China has 18 provinces and cities in the region of 310 million people is rich in iron-manganese groundwater resources in northern Songliao Basin and the majority have more to iron, manganese water main or even the only source of water for the town.
    In the water supply system, iron, manganese ion overdose can cause severe fouling of water supply pipe network; the water coloring, flavored aversion caused people; long-term drinking can damage the physical and mental health; for industrial production would endanger the process equipment and product quality.
    Current applications industry is mainly concentrated in the food, beverage, paper, brewing industry, iron excessive water treatment, groundwater, well water as drinking water in addition to iron, geothermal projects and swimming pool circulating water.
    China's "drinking water health standards" requirement, iron <0.3mg / l, manganese <0.1mg / l, when the raw water iron (manganese) content exceeds this standard should be processed. In addition to groundwater ferromanganese many ways, such as aeration oxidation, oxidation with chlorine contact oxidation filtration and potassium permanganate oxidation method. Practical application to aeration oxidation, oxidation and exposure to chlorine oxidation filtration as much.
    Aeration oxidation method using oxygen in the air oxidation of divalent iron to ferric iron to precipitate, and then by sedimentation, filtration eliminated.
    When the oxygen in air to oxidize the divalent iron in groundwater is difficult, can be cast into the water chlorination, chlorine is a stronger oxidant than oxygen. When PH> 5, the chlorine can quickly divalent iron to ferric oxide. But because the water remaining in the chlorination combined with other reducing substances, so the actual amount of chlorine required higher than the theoretical value.
    After the chlorine into the water, should be quickly mixed with water, and then a certain time of the oxidation reaction and flocculation (generally less than 15 ~ 20min), and finally filtered through a sand filter to remove water generated ferric hydroxide suspensions. Before dosing of chlorine, oxygen exposure means may be provided to reduce the amount of chlorine.
    General aeration oxidation without a catalyst, so the rate of oxidation is relatively slow. When the oxygen-containing groundwater through a filter layer filtration, water filter adsorption of divalent iron is thus oxidative hydrolysis, gradually generate a catalytic activity of iron or manganese "filter" in the "filter" of Catalysis the rate of oxidation of iron and manganese greatly accelerated, which was subsequently removed filter. The most commonly used filter manganese sand.
3, fluoride process
    Fluorine in drinking water is our main problem to be solved. Distribution of fluorine groundwater area is very wide, due to the high fluoride content of drinking water can cause chronic poisoning, especially for teeth and bones to produce serious harm. Suffering from mild dental fluorosis, showed enamel damage, premature tooth loss, severe pain in the bones and joints, and even bone deformation, appears hunched like, totally incapacitated. Therefore, fluoride water hazard is serious. Our drinking water standards set forth in fluorine content must not exceed 1mg / L.