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Sewage Treatment

Mine Wastewater Treatment
    Mine water is both a source of pollution with industry characteristics, but also a valuable water resources. Our mine wastewater treatment technology starting in the late 1970s, most of the sewage treatment work only stay for emissions control. At present many coal mines on the one hand a serious water shortage, on the other hand direct discharge of untreated, cause a lot of water waste, and pollution of the environment, to a certain extent, restricted the sustainable development of coal production and mining economy. Therefore, as a coal mine water or living water, not only to solve the mine after the mine water shortage problem, and make full use of the water resources of mine water, saving groundwater resources, with significant economic, environmental and social benefits.
1, wastewater sources
    Mine water mainly from groundwater, is in the process of coal mining, groundwater in contact with the coal, rock, a series of physical, chemical and biochemical reactions and form. Mine water into the coal characteristics depend on the geological environment and the chemical composition of mineral coal strata, including mine hydrogeological conditions and water filling factors on mine water quantity, water quality have a decisive impact. The main pollutants in mine water for SS, and SS is composed of pulverized coal mine water COD is the main component; whether it is the removal of wastewater COD or SS, in the final analysis to be able to effectively remove the wastewater SS.
Mine effluent has the following characteristics:
Suspended solids content (1) mine water is very unstable, a great difference in the concentration of suspended solids, and most of the suspended solids content is much higher than surface water, poor sensory properties;
(2) mine effluent suspended solids small size, light weight, good stability, not destabilization settlement;
(3) mine waste water containing a small amount of pollutants;
(4) higher chroma mine effluent;
(5) formed alum coagulation process difficult, coagulation sedimentation worse than the effect of surface water in some silt particles.

2, water quantity and quality
2.1 Water
    Early coal mine water inflow is increasing. Early coal mining, general Swallet mainly from the upper seam itself and sparse dry diving, and therefore less water inflow. With the increasing cumulative production of mined-out area gradually expanded, and mining caving, blasting vibration, surface flooding, erosion, causing the overlying rock rupture, or even collapse, accordingly above the coal seam aquifer groundwater, surface water and slopes runoff and river flow along the collapse crack infiltration recharge zone, water mine also will continue to increase, mine water inflow growing.
Waste water provided by the owner.
2.2 Water Quality
    1) The quality of coal mine water is usually:
Suspended solids (SS): usually 300 ~ 600mg / L, there are a few days each month peak value 1000 ~ 3000mg / L. Press influent SS upper limit, that is 600mg / L meter;
Oil: 1-120mg / L;
COD, BOD content is very low, it does not consider other pollutants to be determined depending on the mine, generally do not have high levels of contaminants.
    2) emissions and reuse standards
    Suspended solids and oil index after the effluent treatment process according to the owners needs, to meet the "coal industry mine design specifications" (GB50215-94) in the dust sprinkling water quality standards (see Table 1) and "wastewater reclamation and reuse design specification" ( GB50335-2002) in urban miscellaneous water quality control index (Table 2).
Table 1 dust sprinkling water quality standards

Table 2 urban miscellaneous water quality control targets

In addition, since the treated effluent to be reused in downhole hydraulic equipment, hydraulic prop according to water quality requirements: SS≤10 ~ 200mg / L, diameter d <0.15mm; hardness (carbonate) 2 ~ 7mg / L; pH value 6.5 to 9; turbidity <20.
     The above criteria, the treated effluent discharge standards designed to: SS≤10mg / L, oil ≤1mg / L.


Process characteristics:
    (1) the process of setting up an independent regulator tank and sedimentation tank, rather than adjusting the pre-sedimentation tank. This full play to the regulating pond and sedimentation pond respective functions. Thus ensuring the system for runoff water quality and quantity fluctuations have a strong impact resistance, making the operation of the system more stable, secure and reliable.
    (2) the process fully into account the changes of mine water inflow through the rational combination of the pump, effectively reduce the operation and management costs, making the device easier maintenance, system stability is also more secure.
    (3) For the mine water formed alum coagulation process difficult characteristics, we take PAC before dosing pumps P1, PAM after dosing pump dosing methods. Compared with single dosing PAC or PAM dosing mode, the second dosage of the drug dosage is not only much smaller, and the effect of coagulation and sedimentation also much better.
    (4) for the part of the mine water containing more features, we have adopted the method of dissolved air flotation, very effective guarantee system for oil removal. It also can remove some of the lighter could not be removed in the settling tank suspended solids.
    (5) ordinary quick filter with automatic backwash, both to improve the degree of automation of sewage stations, but also reduce the labor intensity of the wastewater treatment plant operations workers.
    (6) where disinfection using chlorine dioxide disinfection, due to the chlorine dioxide disinfection does not produce organic chloride (THMs) and other carcinogenic substances, even if the water is discharged into the outside world, nor will that harm the security of the receiving water body.
    (7) is designed to take full account of automatic control, dosing equipment dosing pump can be adjusted using the metering pump, be adjusted according to the influent flow meter display rapid filter with automatic control. The system consists of PLC control, a high degree of automation, greatly reducing the labor intensity of workers, to facilitate future operation and management.

4, commonly used process for
    According to water pollution wastewater constituents of mine are different, common mine wastewater treatment methods: flotation + filtration process, Coagulation + filtration + disinfection process, integrated water purification device + filtration + disinfection technology and other methods. Mine water directly discharged after treatment, usually by precipitation or coagulation sedimentation process technology; as a post-treatment process water or other water, usually by coagulation sedimentation filtration treatment technology; post-treatment as domestic water must be filtered and then after removal of phenol and other harmful substances and disinfection; high salinity water containing suspended solids and some of mine, after treatment as drinking water also must undergo purification after desalination treatment.
    Two biological contact oxidation process
Advantages: able to adapt to mine low concentration variation in wastewater, while investment, operation and maintenance are simpler than activated sludge; treatment is better.
Disadvantages: poor nitrogen and phosphorus removal.
    A2 / O process
    The process is anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic biological nutrient removal technology for short, is the 1970s by the US experts in anaerobic - aerobic phosphorus removal process (A / O) on the basis of development.
    SBR process
    This process is referred to as the sequence batch activated sludge, which is a way to run a batch aeration activated sludge wastewater treatment technology. The variable volume activated sludge process and biological selector principles combine to become the modified SBR process.
    BAF Process
    BAF process for short. It combines a variety of purification filtration, adsorption and biological metabolism. Wastewater enters from the bottom of the filter media layer, the lower filter layer has oxygen aeration systems Aeration, gas and water to flow in the same direction. In the filter, the microbial oxidation of organic matter is decomposed, NH3-N is oxidized to NO3-N; In addition, due to internal accumulation of waste in the microbial membrane filter layer and the presence of anaerobic / anoxic environment, while achieving nitrification Part denitrification, effluent from the upper filter system can be directly discharged.
     BAF process has volume, small footprint, high efficiency, good water quality, the process is simple, easy operation and management features, the actual operation can achieve centralized control and automatic control field manual, the effluent after disinfection You can reach the water reuse standards.